• PN: B111453

COMPONENTS

45x Ab-conjugated beads (S4P12 - human LAP (TGF-β1) Ab-bead). PN: B111453A. One vial containing 100 µL of anti-human LAP (TGF-β1)* conjugated to AimPlex Bead S4P12.

25x Biotin-detection Ab (human LAP (TGF-β1) Biotin-dAb). PN: B111453B. One vial containing 100 µL of biotinylated anti-human LAP (TGF-β1)*.

Lyophilized Standard Mix - Human LAP. PN: HLAPAG. One vial containing lyophilized recombinant LAP.

*Capture and detection antibodies in this AimPlex assay recognize the latency associated protein (LAP) of the latent TGF-β1 (LAP/TGF-β1) complex.

STORAGE:  2-8 C in the dark.

IMPORTANT: Sodium azide forms explosive compounds with heavy metals. These products contain <0.05% (w/w) azide which with repeated contact with lead and copper commonly found in plumbing drains may result in the buildup of shock sensitive compounds. Dispose in accordance with regulations from your institute.

APPLICATION: Optimal antibody pair and antigen standard for assaying human LAP (TGF-β1).  To be used in conjunction with the AimPlex NR Basic Kit (PN: P100001) and a diluent kit. Refer to the AimPlex Multiplex Immunoassay User Manual and kit inserts for the assay procedure.

For Research Use Only.  Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Assay Specifications:

Sample types: Cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma, bodily fluid and tissue/cell lysate

Sensitivity (LOD): < 30 pg/mL

Quantitation range:

LLOQ: <80 pg/mL

ULOQ: > 20,000 pg/mL

Standard dose recovery: 70-130%

Intra-assay CV: < 10%

Inter-assay CV: < 20%

Sample volume: 15 µL/test

Description:

Latency-associated protein (LAP) regulates transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β1) activities.  LAP and TGF-β1 non-covalently associate with each other to form the latent TGF-β1 complex.  TGF-β1 was first identified in human platelets as a protein with a potential role in wound healing. TGF-β1 plays an important role in controlling the immune system, and shows different activities on different types of cell, or cells at different developmental stages. Most leukocytes secrete TGF-β1 with the effects of TGF-β1 on macrophages and monocytes being predominantly suppressive. This cytokine can inhibit the proliferation of these cells and prevent their production of reactive oxygen (e.g. superoxide (O2−)) and nitrogen (e.g. nitric oxide (NO)) intermediates. However, as with other cell types, TGF-β1 can also have the opposite effect on cells of myeloid origin. For example, TGF-β1 acts as a chemoattractant, directing an immune response to some pathogens. Macrophages and monocytes respond to low levels of TGF-β1 in a chemotactic manner. The expression of monocytic cytokines (including IL-1a, IL-1β and TNF-α) and phagocytic killing by macrophages can be increased by the action of TGF-β1.

References:

1.       Assoian RK, Komoriya A, Meyers CA, Miller DM, Sporn MB (1983). "Transforming growth factor-beta in human platelets. Identification of a major storage site, purification, and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (11): 7155–60.

2.       Derynck R, Jarrett JA, Chen EY, Eaton DH, Bell JR, Assoian RK, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Goeddel DV (1985). "Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells". Nature. 316 (6030): 701–5. doi:10.1038/316701a0.

3.       Letterio JJ, Roberts AB (1998). "Regulation of immune responses by TGF-beta". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16: 137–61. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.16.1.137.

4.       Annes JP, Munger JS and Rifkin DB (2003). "Making sense of latent TGFβ activation". Journal of Cell Science 116, 217-224.

5.       Wahl SM, Wen J, Moutsopoulos N (2006). "TGF-beta: a mobile purveyor of immune privilege". Immunol. Rev. 213: 213–27.