PN: A111209T

COMPONENTS

45x Ab-conjugated beads (S4P3 - human TNFα Ab-bead). PN: A111209TA. One vial containing 35 µL of anti-human TNFα conjugated to AimPlex Bead S4P3.

25x Biotin-detection Ab (human TNFα Biotin-dAb). PN: A111209TB. One vial containing 35 µL of biotinylated anti-human TNFα.

Lyophilized Standard Mix-Human Group 1 Panel A, 7-Plex. PN: HG10007. One vial containing lyophilized recombinant IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNFα. Note: If multiple analyte kits on the above target list are ordered as a panel, only one vial of standard mix is supplied for those analyte kits. 

STORAGE:  2-8 C in the dark.

IMPORTANT: Sodium azide forms explosive compounds with heavy metals. These products contain <0.05% (w/w) azide which with repeated contact with lead and copper commonly found in plumbing drains may result in the buildup of shock sensitive compounds. Dispose in accordance with regulations from your institute.

APPLICATION: Optimal antibody pair and antigen standard for assaying human TNFα.  Can be multiplexed with other analytes in Human Group 1.  To be used in conjunction with the AimPlex NR Basic Kit (PN: P100001T) and a diluent kit. Refer to the AimPlex Multiplex Immunoassay User Manual and kit inserts for the assay procedure.

For Research Use Only.  Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Assay Specifications:

Sample types: Cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma, bodily fluid and tissue/cell lysate

Sensitivity (LOD): < 1 pg/mL

Quantitation range:

LLOQ: <2 pg/mL

ULOQ: > 1,000 pg/mL

Standard dose recovery: 70-130%

Intra-assay CV: < 10%

Inter-assay CV: < 20%

Cross-reactivity of analytes in Human Group 1: Negligible

Sample volume: 15 µL/test

Description:

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. The primary role of TNFα is in the regulation of immune cells. TNFα, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, apoptotic cell death, cachexia, inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication and respond to sepsis via IL1 & IL6 producing cells. Dysregulation of TNF production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including Alzheimer's disease, cancer, major depression, Psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Recombinant TNFα  is used as an immunostimulant under the INN tasonermin. TNFα can be produced ectopically in the setting of malignancy and parallels parathyroid hormone both in causing secondary hypercalcemia and in the cancers with which excessive production is associated. Diseases associated with TNFα include mycobacterium chelonae and aphthous stomatitis.

References:

1.      Swardfager W, Lanctôt K, Rothenburg L, Wong A, Cappell J, Herrmann N (2010). "A meta-analysis of cytokines in Alzheimer's disease". Biol Psychiatry 68 (10): 930–941. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.06.012. PMID 20692646.

2.      Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ (2001). "The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology". Cell 104 (4): 487–501. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00237-9. PMID 11239407.

3.      Dowlati Y, Herrmann N, Swardfager W, Liu H, Sham L, Reim EK, Lanctôt KL (2010). "A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression". Biol Psychiatry 67 (5): 446–457. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.033. PMID 20015486.

4.      Victor FC, Gottlieb AB (2002). "TNF-alpha and apoptosis: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis". J Drugs Dermatol 1 (3): 264–75. PMID 12851985.