• PN: A211176T

COMPONENTS

45x Ab-conjugated beads (S4P4 - mouse TNFα Ab-bead). PN: A211176TA. One vial containing 35 µL of anti-mouse TNFα conjugated to AimPlex Bead S4P4.

25x Biotin-detection Ab (Mouse TNFα Biotin-dAb). PN: A211176TB. One vial containing 35 µL of biotinylated anti-mouse TNFα.

Lyophilized Standard Mix - Mouse Group 1 Panel A, 7-Plex. PN: MG10007. One vial containing lyophilized recombinant mouse IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNFα.  Note: If multiple analyte kits on the above target list are ordered as a panel, only one vial of standard mix is supplied for those analyte kits.

STORAGE:  2-8 C in the dark.

IMPORTANT: Sodium azide forms explosive compounds with heavy metals. These products contain <0.05% (w/w) azide which with repeated contact with lead and copper commonly found in plumbing drains may result in the buildup of shock sensitive compounds. Dispose in accordance with regulations from your institute.

APPLICATION: Optimal antibody pair and antigen standard for assaying human Mouse TNF-alpha/TNFα. Can be multiplexed with other analytes in Mouse Group 1. To be used in conjunction with the AimPlex Mouse/Rat Basic Kit (PN: P200201) and a diluent kit. Refer to the AimPlex Multiplex Immunoassay User Manual and kit inserts for the assay procedure.

For Research Use Only.  Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Assay Specifications:

Sample types: Cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma, bodily fluid and tissue/cell lysate

Sensitivity (LOD): < 0.5 pgmL

Quantitation range:

LLOQ: < 2 pg/mL

ULOQ: > 1,500 pg/mL

Standard dose recovery: 70-130%

Intra-assay CV: < 10%

Inter-assay CV: < 20%

Cross-reactivity of analytes in Human Group 1: Negligible

Sample volume: 15 µL/test

Description:

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) is also known as small inducible cytokine A5 (SCYA5) and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). CCL5 is chemotactic (chemokine) for T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells. This chemokine has been localized to chromosome 17 in humans. RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed "late" (3–5 days) after T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be a CC chemokine and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 (KLF13). RANTES, along with the related chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, has been identified as a natural HIV-suppressive factor secreted by activated CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. Recently, the RANTES protein has been engineered for in vivo production by Lactobacillus bacteria, and this solution is being developed into a possible HIV entry-inhibiting topical microbicide. Diseases associated with CCL5 include ulcer of lower limbs and African Tick-bite Fever.

References:

  1. Swardfager W, Lanctôt K, Rothenburg L, Wong A, Cappell J, Herrmann N (2010). "A meta-analysis of cytokines in Alzheimer's disease". Biol Psychiatry 68 (10): 930–941. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.06.012. PMID 20692646.
  2. Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ (2001). "The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology". Cell 104 (4): 487–501. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00237-9. PMID 11239407.
  3. Dowlati Y, Herrmann N, Swardfager W, Liu H, Sham L, Reim EK, Lanctôt KL (2010). "A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression". Biol Psychiatry 67 (5): 446–457. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.033. PMID 20015486.
  4. Victor FC, Gottlieb AB (2002). "TNF-alpha and apoptosis: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis". J Drugs Dermatol 1 (3): 264–75. PMID 12851985.

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