• PN: A112221

COMPONENTS

45x Ab-conjugated beads (S4P2 - human fractalkine Ab-bead). PN: A112221A. One vial containing 100 µL of anti-human fractalkine conjugated to AimPlex Bead S4P2.

25x Biotin-detection Ab (human Fractalkine Biotin-dAb). PN: A112221B. One vial containing 100 µL of biotinylated anti-human fractalkine.

Lyophilized Standard Mix-Human Group 3 Panel A, 8-Plex. PN: HG30008. One vial containing lyophilized recombinant human Fractalkine, LIF, TNFβ, VEGF-D, I-TAC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TIM-1. Note: If multiple analyte kits on the above target list are ordered as a panel, only one vial of standard mix is supplied for those analyte kits.

STORAGE:  2-8 C in the dark.

IMPORTANT: Sodium azide forms explosive compounds with heavy metals. These products contain <0.05% (w/w) azide which with repeated contact with lead and copper commonly found in plumbing drains may result in the buildup of shock sensitive compounds. Dispose in accordance with regulations from your institute.

APPLICATION: Optimal antibody pair and antigen standard for assaying human Fractalkine/CX3CL1.  Can be multiplexed with other analytes in Human Group 3.  To be used in conjunction with the AimPlex NR Basic Kit (PN: P100001) and a diluent kit. Refer to the AimPlex Multiplex Immunoassay User Manual and kit inserts for the assay procedure.

For Research Use Only.  Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Assay Specifications:

Sample types: Cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma, bodily fluid and tissue/cell lysate

Sensitivity (LOD): < 10 pg/mL

Quantitation range:

LLOQ: < 20 pg/mL

ULOQ: > 5,000 pg/mL

Standard dose recovery: 70-130%

Intra-assay CV: < 10%

Inter-assay CV: < 20%

Cross-reactivity of analytes in Human Group 3: Negligible

Sample volume: 15 µL/test

Description:

Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the only member of the chemokine subfamily CX3C. CX3CL1 is induced by proinflammatory signals in endothelial cells within the vascular system. Fractalkine can exist in a membrane-bound form or in a soluble form – each form with its own function. In membrane-bound form, CX3CL1 works as a binding molecule. It can induce migration of dendritic cells, lymphocytes, stem cells, and macrophages and activate heterotrimeric G proteins. Thus, it can mediate leukocyte transportation and adhesion. In its soluble form defined by proteolytic cleavage, CX3CL1 acts as a chemotaxis inducing molecule, promoting cell to cell adhesion. NK Cells, T-cells, monocytes, and glial cell macrophages all express the receptor for CX3CL1 in vitro. Unlike most chemokines that are synthesized in leukocytes, Fractalkine is produced in the vasculature and neurons within the central nervous system in activated endothelial cells.

In mice, expression of CX3CL1 has been shown to inhibit the progression of lupus nephritis and affects acute renal failure. Due to its role in inflammation, CX3CL1 expression may be associated with chorioetinitis, pityriasis rosea, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis. This indicates a possible role for the chemokine in the protective plasticity process of synaptic scaling.

References:

1.      Ferretti E, Pistoia V, Corcione A. Role of Fractalkine/CX3CL1 and Its Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory and Malignant Disease with Emphasis on B Cell Malignancies. Mediators of Inflammation vol. 2014 Article ID 480941, 10 pages; doi:10.115/2014/480941.

2.      Haskell CA, Cleary, MD Charo, IF. Molecular Uncoupling of Fractalkine-mediated Cell Adhesion Signal Transduction: Rapid Flow Arrest of CX2CR1-Expressing Cells is Independent of G-Protein Activation. J. Biol. Chem. 1999; 274:10053-10058. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.15.10053.

3.      Hundhausen C, Misztela D, Berkhout TA, Broadway N, Saftig P, Reiss K, Hartmann D, Fahrenholz F, Postina R, Matthews V, Kallen K, Rose-John S, Ludwig A. The disintegrin-like metalloproteinase ADAM10 is involved in constitutive cleavage of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and regulates CX3CL1-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Blood. 2013 102:1186-1195; doi:10.1182/blood-2002-12-3775.

4.      Inoue A. , Hasegawa H. , Kohno M, Ito MR, Terada M, Imai T, Yoshie O, Nose M, Fujita S. (2005), Antagonist of fractalkine (CX3CL1) delays the initiation and ameliorates the progression of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 52: 1522-1533. doi:10.1002/art.21007.

5.      Jones BA, Beamer M, Ahmed S. Fractalkine/CX3CL1: a potential new target for inflammatory diseases. Mol Interv. 2010;10(5):263–270. doi:10.1124/mi.10.5.3.

6.      Oh D, Dursun B, He Z, Lu L, Hoke T, Ljubanovic D, Faubel S, Edelstein C. Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) inhibition is protective against ischemic acute renal failure in mice. A. J. Physiology. 2008; 1(1). doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00204.2007.