96 Tests PN: B116654

Components:

45x Ab-conjugated beads (S5P5- Human VAP-1 Ab-bead). PN: B116654A. One vial containing 100 µL of anti-human VAP-1 conjugated to AimPlex Bead S5P5.

25x Biotin-detection Ab (human VAP-1 Biotin-dAb). PN: B116654B. One vial containing    100 µL of biotinylated anti-Human VAP-1.

Lyophilized Standard - Human VAP-1. PN: B116654S. One vial containing lyophilized VAP-1. 


Application: Optimal antibody pair and antigen standard for assaying human VAP-1.  Can be multiplexed with other analytes in Human Group 2.  To be used in conjunction with the AimPlex NR Basic Kit (PN: P100001) and a diluent kit. Refer to the AimPlex Multiplex Immunoassay User Manual and kit inserts for the assay procedure. Note: Some specimens may contain high level of VAP-1. Pre-diluting normal serum and plasma samples 30 folds with the Sample Dilution Buffer (PN: P830100) is recommended for the VAP-1 assay. Dilution factors should be optimized according to specific experimental conditions and sample types.

Storage:  2-8 C in the dark.

Important: Sodium azide forms explosive compounds with heavy metals. These products contain <0.05% (w/w) azide which with repeated contact with lead and copper commonly found in plumbing drains may result in the buildup of shock sensitive compounds. Dispose in accordance with regulations from your institute.

For Research Use Only.  Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Assay Specifications:

  • Sample types: Cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma, bodily fluid and tissue/cell lysate

  • Sensitivity (LOD): < 50 pg/mL

  • Quantitation range:

  • LLOQ: < 100 pg/mL

  • ULOQ: > 30,000 pg/mL

  • Standard dose recovery: 70-130%

  • Intra-assay CV: < 10%

  • Inter-assay CV: < 20%

  • Sample volume: 15 µL/test

Description:

Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) or Amine oxidase, copper containing 3 (AOC3), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of primary amines (methylamine and aminoacetone) to aldehydes (formaldehyde and methylglyoxal) ammonium and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of copper and quinone cofactor. Amine oxidases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various endogenous amines, including histamine or dopamine. VAP-1 constitutes the copper dependent class of amine oxidases, such as lysyl oxidase or lysine demethylase, and is one of the four known in humans. VAP-1 is found in the smooth muscle of blood vessels and various other tissues and can mostly be found in two forms: tissue-bound and soluble isoforms. In diabetic patients, the VAP-1 stimulates glucose uptake via translocation of transporters to the cell membrane in adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. Studies have established a strong correlation between serum VAP-1 levels and urinary albumin excretion, which supports the idea that VAP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney damage in humans. During pulmonary infection and airway hyper-activity, VAP-1 may also contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the transfer of neutrophils from the microvasculature. Diseases associated with AOC3 include diabetes and microvascular complications Of diabetes.

References:

  1. Foot JS, Yow TT, Schilter H, Buson A, Deodhar M, Findlay AD, Guo L, McDonald IA, Turner CI, Zhou W, Jarolimek W (Nov 2013). "PXS-4681A, a potent and selective mechanism-based inhibitor of SSAO/VAP-1 with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 347 (2): 365–74. doi:10.1124/jpet.113.207613. PMID 23943052.

  2. Schilter HC, Collison A, Russo RC, Foot JS, Yow TT, Vieira AT, Tavares LD, Mattes J, Teixeira MM, Jarolimek W (20 March 2015). "Effects of an anti-inflammatory VAP-1/SSAO inhibitor, PXS-4728A, on pulmonary neutrophil migration". Respiratory Research. 16: 42. doi:10.1186/s12931-015-0200-z. PMC 4389443 Freely accessible. PMID 25889951.

  3. Januszewski AS, Mason N, Karschimkus CS, Rowley KG, Best JD, O'Neal DN, Jenkins AJ (May 2014). "Plasma semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in type 1 diabetes is related to vascular and renal function but not to glycaemia". Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. 11 (4): 262–269. doi:10.1177/1479164114532963. PMID 24853908.

  4. Valente T, Gella A, Solé M, Durany N, Unzeta M (Oct 2012). "Immunohistochemical study of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 in the hippocampal vasculature: pathological synergy of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 90 (10): 1989–96. doi:10.1002/jnr.23092. PMID 22714978.